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英语书面表达之短句的写法

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英语书面表达之短句的写法
  

  汪海波
  
  学生情况分析:目前学生已处于高三阶段,对于常见词汇、短语、语法结构有一定了解,对于常见的句子的理解问题已经不大了,在实际操作中要写出正确无误的单个句子也还可以,而放在语篇段落中往往会出现这样那样的错误。因而书面表达的得分受到很大的影响,本文旨在从简单句的结构说起,进而联句成篇,加强学生在写作中队句子的把握。
  
  Ⅰ简单的句子结构:
  
  句型一:主语+连系动词+表语
  
  (l)The work seemed rather difficult for us.
  
  (2)Our dreams have at last come true
  
  (3)The young worker became a writer.
  
  这里的系动词包括:表示状态的系动词:be,keep,seem,remain,stay;表示变化的系动词:beeome,get,turn,grow,come,go,fall:表示知觉的系动词:took,sound,taste,smell,feel等。
  
  句型二:主语+谓语(不及物动词)+其它(状语)
  
  (l)Great changes have taken place in my hometown.
  
  (2)The train has not arrived yet.
  
  此类动词较多,学习过程中应注意积累。尤其应注意那些从汉语看来是及物的,但在英文中却是不及物的动词。有些词如二stop,speak等既是及物动词又是不及物动词,在使用时,要根据句子的意思而定。
  
  句型三:主语十谓语十宾语+其它(状语)
  
  (l)He likes geography.
  
  (2)I hear he will be back soon.
  
  这里的宾语可以是名词、代词、从句或相当于名词或代词的不定式、ing分词等。有些及物动词只能接动名词,有些只能接不定式,而有些既可以接动名词,又可以接不定式,在使用
  
  时,要具体清况具体分析,灵活运用。
  
  句型四:主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语+其它
  
  (l)He gave me a new dictionary.
  
  (2)Would you please tell me how to get to the station?
  
  (3)I asked him what lshould do next?
  
  英语中常用作双及物的动词有:give,pass,hand,show,
  
  tell,bring,take,teach,buy,make,do,ask等。还应注意,
  
  当把直接宾语置于间接宾语之前时,间接宾语的前面需要加一个适当的介词to,for,of
  
  句形五:主语+谓语十宾语+宾补
  
  (l)He asked me to help him with his English.
  
  (2)I found it neeessary to talk with her
  
  (3)He had me do it at once.
  
  这里的宾补可以是名词、介词短语、形容词、副词、不定式、一ing分词或一ed分词。
  
  (一)主谓宾:
  
  (1) n/pron(主语)+vt(谓语)+n(宾语)
  
  例:他打破了玻璃
  
  He broke the window.
  
  他在说英语。
  
  He is speaking English.
  
  (2) n/pron(主语)+vi(谓语)+n(宾语)
  
  他来自美国。
  
  He comes from America.
  
  (3) n/pron(主语)+vi(谓语)
  
  他走了。
  
  He went.
  
  注:to do/doing/句子也可以做主语
  
  (二)主系表:
  
  n/pron(主语)+ link verb(系动词)+adj/n(表语)
  
  我是一名高中生。
  
  I am a high school student.
  
  他昨天病了。
  
  He felt ill yesterday.
  
  注:联系动词(Link verb):be动词(am,is,are,was,were,have been);其他联系动词如:become成为,turn变成,go变和感官动词如:feel, touch, hear, see等。其特点是联系动词与其后的表语没有动宾关系,表语多为形容词。
  
  (三)区别:主谓宾主要说的是谁做了什么,而主系表则是谁是什么。
  
  Ⅱ练习
  
  (1)成句翻译练习:
  
  1我是李华。(是什么用主系表)
  
  I am Li hua.
  
  2我是一名中国学生。(是什么用主系表)
  
  I am a Chinese student.
  
  3我在你校学习暑假课程。(做什么用主谓宾)
  
  I am taking summer courses in your school.
  
  4我上个月来的。(做什么用主谓宾)
  
  I came here last month.
  
  5我发现课程很有趣。(做什么用主谓宾)
  
  I found my courses interesting.
  
  6我的困难是记不好笔记和不会用图书馆。(做什么用主谓宾)
  
  I have some difficulties with note-taking and using library.
  
  7有人告诉我可以向Learning Center求助。(做什么用主谓宾)
  
  People told me I could get help from Learning Center.
  
  8我很想得到你们的帮助。(做什么用主谓宾)
  
  I really need to get help from you.
  
  9我周二上午和周五下午没课。(做什么用主谓宾)
  
  I have no class on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons.
  
  10请告诉我你什么时候有空。
  
  Please let me know which day is ok for you.
  
  11 下面是我的Email地址和电话号码。
  
  Here are my email address and phone number.
  
  (2)篇章练习
  
  (2011新课标全国 分值:25分)假设你是李华,正在一所英国学校学习暑期课程,遇到一些困难,希望得到学校辅导中心(Learning Center)的帮助。根据学校规定,你需书面预约,请按下列要点写一封信:
  
  1、本人简介;
  
  2、求助内容;
  
  3、约定时间;
  
  4、你的联系方式(Email:lihua@1236.com;phone:12345678)。
  
  注意:1、词数100左右;
  
  2、可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;
  
  3、结束语已为你写好。
  
  版本一:
  
  Dear Sir or Madam,
  
  I am Li hua. I am a Chinese student. I am taking summer courses in your school. I came here last month. I found my courses interesting. I have some difficulties with note-taking and using library. People told me I could get help from Learning Center. I really need to get help from you.  I have no class on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons. Please let me know which day is ok for you. Here are my email address and phone number:lihua@1236.com <mailto:lihua@1236.com>;phone:12345678
  
  Look forward to your reply.
  
  Yours,
  
  Li Hua
  
  评价要素评价内容扣分情况文章档次   三档
  
  文章是否覆盖所有要点文章涵盖了内容要求的四个要点
  
  文章是否使用较多高级句式写作中规中矩,没有运用多少高级句式2
  
  文章是否使用较多高级词汇写作中规中矩,没有运用多少高级词汇2
  
  文章是否运用恰当连接词连接词较少读起来生硬2
  
  文章是否出现较多语法错误有明显的语法错误但不多3
  
  版本二:
  
  Dear Sir or Madam,
  
  I am Li hua and I am a Chinese student. I am taking summer courses in your school. I came here last month. I found my courses interesting.,but I have some difficulties with note-taking and using library. I wad told that I could get help from Learning Center. So I write to you. I really need to get help from you.  I have no class on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons. Please let me know which day is ok for you. Here are my email address and phone number:lihua@1236.com <mailto:lihua@1236.com>;phone:12345678
  
  Look forward to your reply.
  
  Yours,
  
  Li Hua
  
  评价要素评价内容扣分情况文章档次   四档
  
  文章是否覆盖所有要点文章涵盖了内容要求的四个要点
  
  文章是否使用较多高级句式写作中规中矩,没有运用多少高级句式2
  
  文章是否使用较多高级词汇写作中规中矩,没有运用多少高级词汇2
  
  文章是否运用恰当连接词连接词and, but, so
  
  文章是否出现较多语法错误有明显的语法错误但不多3
  
  例文三:
  
  Dear Sir/Madam,
  
  I'm Li Hua, a Chinese student taking summer courses in your university. I'm writing to ask for help. I came here last month and found my courses interesting. But I have some difficulties with note-taking and I have no idea of how to use the library. I was told the Learning Center provides help for students and I'm anxious to get help from you. I have no class on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons. Please let me know which day is OK with you. You may email or phone me. Here are my email address and phone number:?lihua@1236.com <mailto:lihua@1236.com>; 12345678.
  
  Look forward to your reply.
  
  评价要素评价内容扣分情况文章档次   五档
  
  文章是否覆盖所有要点文章涵盖了内容要求的四个要点
  
  文章是否使用较多高级句式写作中运用一些高级句式
  
  文章是否使用较多高级词汇写作中规中矩,没有运用多少高级词汇2
  
  文章是否运用恰当连接词连接词and, but, so
  
  文章是否出现较多语法错误有明显的语法错误但不多3
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